Maritime drug trafficking and smuggling are serious global issues. Every day, cartels and organised crime rings use ships to transport large quantities of drugs and narcotics worldwide. The illegal drug trade is estimated to be worth $426 billion annually. Read on to learn more about preventive measures and consequences for those caught trafficking drugs by maritime means.
Where Do Drugs Come From?
Most of the trafficking of synthetic drugs come from South America. In particular, Colombia is a significant source of cocaine. According to the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), “Colombia remains the world’s largest producer of coca leaves, the raw material used to make cocaine.” Mexico is also a major source of drugs smuggled by maritime means. The DEA reports that Mexican drug cartels “transport multi-ton loads of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and marijuana” across the Pacific Ocean to the United States.
Most illicit drugs are produced in countries where they are not native. For example, cocaine is made in South America and heroin in Southwest Asia. The United States is the world’s largest consumer of illicit drugs, accounting for about a third of global consumption. Maritime transportation is often used to smuggle drugs into the U.S. because it offers criminals a way to transport large quantities of drugs with relative ease and anonymity.
Maritime Conveyance Routes of Drugs and Narcotics
Once these drugs are produced, they must be transported to their destination by ship.
Criminal organisations use various maritime conveyance routes to smuggle drugs worldwide. These include small boats, commercial fishing vessels, private yachts, container ships, and passenger buses/trains that travel between the U.S. and Mexico. The most common route is through small boats transporting drugs from Cuba, Haiti, Jamaica, and the Dominican Republic to Florida.
In Asia, this usually involves loading the drugs onto smaller vessels, which travel to larger ships waiting offshore. These larger ships then transport the drugs to ports all over the world. Once the ship arrives at its destination port, the smaller vessels carrying the drugs will unload their cargo and transport it ashore, where it will be distributed by land or air.
Drugs in a Privy Place
One of the most common methods used by smugglers to hide drugs is by hiding them in shipping containers. This method is known as “Container Hijacking.” Smugglers will often break into a container while sitting in a port or terminal and then hide the drugs inside before it’s loaded onto a ship. Once the container has been loaded, it’s difficult for authorities to detect the presence of drugs without opening up the container and inspecting it manually. Smugglers used this method in 2012 to smuggle $250 million worth of cocaine into Australia.
The drugs are often hidden in plain sight among the legitimate cargo. In addition, criminal organisations will also often use false walls or compartments to conceal the drugs within the container. They may also use false bottoms in storage containers or barrels.
To prevent maritime drug trafficking and narcotics smuggling, increasing security at ports of entry/exit is essential. Authorities ensure this by installing closed-circuit television cameras, hiring additional security personnel, and using x-ray machines to scan incoming containers for contraband. It is also important to increase international cooperation among law enforcement agencies so that information about criminal organisations can be shared quickly and effectively.
The consequence of maritime drug trafficking and narcotics smuggling depends on the type and amount of drug involved and the country where the offence occurred. In many cases, traffickers will be sentenced to prison terms ranging from 10 years to life. In some cases, death sentences have also been imposed.
In the U.S., offenders can be sentenced to up to life in prison if they are caught smuggling: kilograms or more of heroin; cocaine; methamphetamine; MDMA (ecstasy); or LSD; 500 grams or more of fentanyl; 10 grams or more of RICO (a Schedule I controlled substance); 100 grams or more of phencyclidine (PCP); 1 kilogram or more flunitrazepam (Rohypnol); 5 grams or more of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB).
Penalties may also include fines, asset forfeiture, and supervised release.
Maritime transportation plays a significant role in narcotics smuggling as it offers opportunities for organised crime rings to traffic large quantities of drugs with relative ease and anonymity. Increasing security at ports of entry/exit, increasing international cooperation among law enforcement agencies, and increasing awareness about the issue are all crucial steps that need to be taken to combat this problem. In this blog post, we have explored how maritime drug trafficking and narcotics smuggling work and what can be done to prevent it.
Multilateral cooperation among maritime nations must put a dent in this illegal activity.
Maritime industry news tracks drug trafficking and smuggling is a serious global problem that requires action from law enforcement agencies, port authorities, and marine companies. By taking measures to prevent trafficking and punishing those caught, we can progress in the fight against this illegal activity.